Civil engineering is one of the wide disciplines of engineering, after military engineering, that entails the design, construction, and analysis of natural and man-made structures like dams, bridges, buildings, large infrastructures, sewerage, and pipelines. Civil Era has evolved as the perfect online platform for civil engineering online courses at affordable prices and best-in-market quality study material.
Civil engineering is known as the most vital discipline on which entire infrastructure rest. Even minor errors can result in a drastic collapse that can’t be eradicated quickly or if done then it can result in heavy capital expenditure loss that should be taken into consideration before designing any building. The leaning tower of Pisa is been the clear example of the same where only minor design deformity has resulted in entire building collapse which can’t been corrected for more than centuries now.
The knowledge of properties of materials is very important and must-know for every civil engineering aspirant to excel further in life to bestow the world with some great infrastructures. Below we have listed some important mechanical properties of the material that comes in handy for each civil engineering aspirant in estimating the factor of safety of the material. Here they are.
Mechanical properties of the material
Strength- Strength is the property of the material that determines its ability to resist any kind of deformations that may result in multiple kinds of loads being acted upon. In simple words, it is the resistance against any load that bends or changes the orientation of the material. Strength poses great significance for every civil engineering aspirant.
The heavy structures like bridges, dams on which the heavy stresses act signify the vitality of strength that covers the important parameter of this mechanical property in our daily lives. These all depend on the strength of the materials.
Toughness- toughness is the ability of the material to resist fracture. In short, toughness is the resistance against any crack. It is widely acted upon due to sudden loads. This generally happens when the stress exceeds the ultimate tensile load. During gradual loads, the material is subjected to testing of strength. But while sudden loads have been taking place, they exceed the ultimate tensile loads which result in the breaking of the material. That is the basic difference between toughness and strength.
Hardness- hardness is the resistance against penetration. The material when acted upon by any sharp material, tears off the materials in chip form, and gets penetrated deep inside. Hardness is the resistance of a material against the penetration of hard objects. During grinding or milling operation the material is subjected to removing of material in the chip or powdered form. The hardness of the materials is determined by the shape of that chip of material.
Ductility- Ductility is defined as the tendency to elongate against pulling or tensile action. Ductility is an important property of the material that results due to tensile stress. Mild steel is known as the most ductile material known to man that is used in the general application for building large civil engineering structures.
While the material is been pulled, there comes the point when a bottleneck takes place resulting in a reduction of sudden cross-section area when the pulling action exceeds the ultimate tensile strength. The time taken from initiating a bottleneck to the separation of the material determines the ductility of the material. Therefore, UTM or universal testing machine is used to test all the requisite parameters.
Malleability- Malleability is the ability of the material to be converted to a sheet against the applied stress. The stress can be sudden or gradual. Same as of the ductility but here in malleability property, we have the ductility acted upon each portion of the material. Gold is known as the most malleable material known to humans. The reason why its high value in the market. It is highly suitable for generating sheet metal.
Brittleness- brittleness is the ability of the material to be broken into pieces acted upon by the load or force more than the ultimate brittle strength. They have a little tendency to deform before rupture. Concrete and cast iron are the main examples of brittleness. brittle metal is apt to break or crack without a change of shape.
Creep-creep is the type of metal deformation that occurs at stresses below the yield strength of the material, generally at high temperatures. In other words, solid material tends to deform permanently under the continuous and long-term stresses being acted upon it. It is the most useful property of the material according to material science.
While roads and bridges are subjected to continuous persistent stresses due to transport and other vehicles running on them. Due to the continuous movement of all the vehicles, there comes the time, when bridge material gets deformed gradually as a result creep occurs. If not treated properly, creep may fail the material. It defines the time-dependent behavior of a solid.
Fatigue- fatigue, and creep are one and all the same thing. Only the difference lies in the fact that creep is the material deformation under the application of persistent stresses usually at elevated temperature for a long duration of time whereas fatigue is also the material deformation under the application of cyclic loading.
Summarizing the entire article, in brief, it is worth saying that the above-stated mechanical properties are vital from the civil engineering point of view. We all face these kinds of properties in our everyday lives. From roads to sewerage lines, these mechanical properties are interconnected in getting the best out of the material in which it is made up of. So every aspirant needs to have at least basic knowledge about all these properties. Through the civil era, you will also get civil engineering Online Courses that will prove vital due to the long run.
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